9-11 Sep 2015 Paris (France)
L'enseignement de l'Histoire en République populaire de Chine aujourd'hui : Quels acteurs ? Quelles contraintes ? Quelles valeurs ? / History teaching in PRC today: actors, constraints, and values.
Russell Yves  1@  
1 : Centre d'études sur la Chine moderne et contemporaine  (CECMC-CCJ)  -  Website
CNRS : UMR8173, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS)
54, Boulevard Raspail - 75006 PARIS -  France

Les programmes d'histoire en RPC prônent toujours la transmission des valeurs socialistes à travers l'enseignement du matérialisme historique et une vision marxiste-léniniste de l'histoire.Cependant, comment cet impératif idéologique influence-t-il l'enseignement de l'histoire tel qu'il s'écrit dans les manuels et tel qu'il se pratique dans les salles de classe?Comment concilier aujourd'hui exigences politiques et nécessité d'adaptations à un monde où informations et personnes circulent de façon toujours plus importante ? Depuis le milieu des années 1980, le système d'enseignement chinois a connu plusieurs réformes, touchant autant les programmes que le monde de l'édition. De nouveaux acteurs ont fait leur apparition, bousculant les monopoles établis, tandis que l'Etat garde toujours la maîtrise des domaines jugés sensibles. Aujourd'hui, huit éditions de manuels d'histoire se partagent le marché chinois, ainsi que deux éditions d' « Histoire et société » (历史与社会). Pourquoi autant d'éditions?Quelles sont leurs spécificités et leurs points communs?A quels besoins répondent-elles?

Dans mon intervention, je tâcherai de cerner les enjeux de l'enseignement de l'histoire aujourd'hui en RPC, en identifiant les contraintes politiques et éducatives, le rôle des différents acteurs, et les valeurs en compétition dans les programmes et les différents sets de manuels d'histoire. L'objectif est de montrer les mutations traversant récemment l'enseignement de l'histoire tout en révélant la persistance d'une certaine façon de concevoir l'histoire et le passé.

History programs in PRC still claim to transmit socialist values through a historical materialism and Marxist-Leninist thought. However, how does this ideological imperative affect history teaching in practice in the textbooks and in the classrooms? How to reconcile political requirements and needs of adaptation to a world where flows of people and information are more and more important. Since the middle of the 1980s, Chinese education system has undergone several reforms of programs and edition system. New actors have appeared, destroying some monopolies, while the state still retain control on sensitive areas. Today, eight sets of History textbooks and two sets of “History and Society” textbooks are competing on the Chinese market. Why so many editions? What do they have in common and where are their differences? To which needs do they respond?

In my intervention, I will try to identify what is at stake in the teaching of history today in PRC, by analyzing the political and educative constraints, the role of the different actors, the competing values in the programs and the different sets of History textbooks. My goal is to present the transformations of the history teaching and to reveal the continuation of the a certain way to conceive history and the past. 

History programs in PRC still claim to transmit socialist values through a historical materialism and Marxist-Leninist thought. However,how does this ideological imperative affect history teaching in practice in the textbooks and in the classrooms? How to reconcile political requirements and needs of adaptation to a world where flows of people and information are more and more important.Since the middle of the 1980s, Chinese education system has undergone several reforms of programs and edition system. New actors have appeared, destroying some monopolies, while the state still retain control on sensitive areas.Today, eight sets of History textbooks and two sets of “History and Society” textbooks are competing on the Chinese market. Why so many editions?What do they have in common and where are their differences?To which needs do they respond?

In my intervention, I will try to identify what is at stake in the teaching of history today in PRC, by analyzing the political and educative constraints, the role of the different actors, the competing values in the programs and the different sets of History textbooks. My goal is to present the transformations of the history teaching and to reveal the continuation of the a certain way to conceive history and the past.


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